My general observation is that the harder the wood, the slower the growth.
Here's a few things I can saw w. some certainty. The Tulip tree, more commonly known as the yellow poplar, grows very straight, and rapidly, given enough water and light. I would expect 1 10' tall sapling at 5 years, w. a branch free lower trunk at least 4' tall and 2 - 3 inches thick. Not a very strong wood, but it works easily, and would make nice sticks.
Mulberry grows like a weed where I live. Altho related to the osage orange, it is much less strong. Once the roots are established, it can be almost impossible to eradicate. There are several abandoned properties near me where mulberries have been repeatedly cut down near the ground, only to grow back w. numerous straight "child" trunks." I've cut a few of those and find that at 8 years a few of the inner rings have turned to heart wood. Its also fairly light, and feels springy. I think they will make good sticks.